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Philosophy: An Introduction

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According to Aristotle, philosophy studies the whole Being. Rest of the sciences study slices of Being, but philosophy studies whole Being and as Being as such.

For example physics studies matter in respect of its physical qualities. So physics is a partial study of matter, for though it studies matter as such, it studies its physical properties alone, and not, for example, its biological properties.

Similiarly, sociology studies society, psychology studies psyche. Each science has a limited field of studies. But philosophy is the most generalized studu of Being, of the whole universe.

Philosophy studies Being as such, whatever is, and it does not study it in its partial attributes , but in respect of its essential attribute , an attribute that applies to Being in its capacity of what it is and not in any other sense.

And that attribute of Being is "to be." The most essential attribute , that applies to Being in what Aristotle calls a commensurate Universal manner, is its " isness". So, philosophy studies Being in so far as it "is".

Commensurate Universal attribute is that which applies to a subject in the first place , and nothing prior to that subject holds this attribute. So, triangularity is a commensurately universal trait of triangles and not of any particular type of triangles. "To be ", is the commensurate universal attribute of Being. That it is Being which 'is', and there is nothing , which has "isness" prior to Being, and whatever has " isness" after Being, has it as the attribute of Being.

All genre are from Being. Being is the most generalized concept . Being is divided into many genere. Each genus has the attribute of isness, which it inherits from Being.


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